The spiritual master can impart many teachings and instructions that counteract the four obstacles which prevent us from attaining Buddhahood:

4. Impermanence

5. The Suffering of Samsara

6. Karma and its Result

7. Loving-Kindness and Compassion

8. Refuge and Precepts

9. Cultivation of Bodhicitta

10. Training in Aspiration Bodhicitta

11. Training in Action Bodhicitta

12. The Perfection of Generosity

13. The Perfection of Moral Ethics

14. The Perfection of Patience

15. The Perfection of Perseverance

16. The Perfection of Meditative Concentration

17. The Perfection of Wisdom Awareness

18. The Aspects of the Five Paths

19. The Ten Bodhisattva Bhumis

The most essential are the instructions on the impermanent nature of all phenomena and the suffering nature of the six realms of samsara; these teachings show the special method to release attachment.

The instructions on karma and result show the special method by which one renounces the cause of suffering.

The antidote to one’s own selfishness is the joy and happiness of the practice of loving-kindness and compassion.

To open the door to enlightenment and enter the city of liberation, the refuge ceremony is needed.

The method to attain Buddhahood is the cultivation and practice of bodhicitta.

Through these methods, one progressively goes through the five paths and ten bhumis and, as the final result, arrives at Buddhahood with the three kayas.

From that state, one effortlessly manifests activities for the benefit of all sentient beings until the end of samsara.

Source: Gampopa, Dharma Lord. The Jewel Ornament of Liberation: The Wish-fulfilling Gem of the Noble Teachings. Translated by Khenpo Konchog Gyaltsen Rinpoche. Edited by Ani K. Trinlay Chodron. Boulder, Colorado: Snow Lion, 1998.